Here is the bibliography for HARD TIMES as prepared for
participants in the 1994 Dickens Universe at UC Santa Cruz, John
As explained earlier, these bibliographies are by no means
exhaustive, the lists being intended for a varied group of stu-
dents and faculty about to engage in a week's intensive discus-
sion of the particular novel. As you will have seen from our
earlier report on the conference, discussion ranged from tradi-
tional approaches to the latest modes of discourse, and I believe
that the list reflects this range.
The present checklist is the fifth in the series. Lists for
LITTLE DORRIT, PICKWICK PAPERS, NICHOLAS NICKLEBY, MYSTERY OF
EDWIN DROOD are in the files of DICKNS-L, along with other gen-
eral bibliographies that are available there. Cheers!
Patrick McCarthy <humanitas.ucsb.edu>
The Project Checklists
A Selected Bibliography
The Dickens Universe, 1994
Two editions are recommended:
Penguin, edited and with an introduction by David Craig
Norton Critical Edition, edited and with an introduction by
George Ford and Sylvere Monod (New York, 1966; 2nd edition,
1990). Valuable for its textual notes, Dickens's working
plans, background materials from Household Words, con-
temporary materials on industrialism and education, and a
selection of criticism.
Madeline House, Graham Storey, and Katherine Tillotson, et al.,
eds. The Letters of Charles Dickens. Oxford: Clarendon Press,
1965-. Volume seven, the most recently published, includes
the publication year of Hard Times.
Ackroyd, Peter. Dickens. London: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1990.
Forster, John. The Life of Charles Dickens. Ed. A.J. Hoppe.
London: Dent, 1966.
Johnson, Edgar. Charles Dickens: His Tragedy and Triumph. New
York: Simon and Schuster, 1952.
Kaplan, Fred. Dickens: A Biography. New York: Morrow, 1988.
Background and Criticism
Armstrong, Nancy. "Dickens Between Two Disciplines: A Problem
for Theories of Reading." Semiotica 38 (1982): 243-75.
Baird, John D. "Divorce and Matrimonial Causes: An Aspect of
Hard Times." Victorian Studies 20 (1977): 401-12.
Bodenheimer, Rosemary. "Politics and the Recovery of the Story:
The Interrupted Stories of Hard Times." The Politics of
Story in Victorian Social Fiction. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1988.
Bornstein, George. "Miscultivated Field and Corrupted Garden:
Imagery in Hard Times." Nineteenth-Century Fiction 26
Patrick Brantlinger. The Spirit of Reform: British Literature
and Politics 1832-1867. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard UP, 1977,
Carr, Jean Ferguson. "Writing as a Woman: Dickens, Hard Times,
and Feminine Discourses." Dickens Studies Annual 18 (1990):
Coles, Nicholas. "The Politics of Hard Times: Dickens the
Novelist versus Dickens the Reformer." Dickens Studies
Annual 15 (1986).
Collins, Phillip. Dickens and Education. London: Macmillan; New
York: St. Martin's, 1963, passim.
Collins, Philip. "Queen Mab's Chariot Among the Steam Engines:
Dickens and `Fancy'." English Studies 42 (1961): 78-90.
Eigner, Edwin M. The Metaphysical Novel in England and America.
Berkeley: U of California P, 1978, passim.
Eigner, Edwin M. The Dickens Pantomime. Berkeley: U of
California P, 1989, passim.
Fielding, K.J. "Hard Times and the Factory Controversy."
Nineteenth-Century Fiction 24 (1970).
Gallagher, Catherine. The Industrial Reformation of English Fic-
tion 1832-1867. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1985, passim.
Garis, Robert D. "Hard Times." The Dickens Theatre. Oxford:
Clarendon, 1965. 144-63.
Gilmour, Robin. "Dickens and the Self-Help Idea." The Vic-
torians and Social Protest: A Symposium. Ed. John Butt and
I. F. Clarke. Newton Abbot, Devon: David and Charles; Ham-
den, Conn.: Shoestring, 1973. 71-101.
Halevy, Elie. The Growth of Philosophical Radicalism. Trans.
Mary Morris. Boston: Beacon, 1955.
Hirsch, David M. "Hard Times and F. R. Leavis." Criticism 6
Holloway, John. "Hard Times: A History and a Criticism." Dick-
ens and the Twentieth Century. Ed. John Gross and Gabriel
Pearson. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1962. 159-74.
House, Humphrey. The Dickens World. London and New York: Oxford
UP, 1941 (corrected 1942); 2nd edn., 1960. 203-11 and pas-
Johnson, Patricia. "Hard Times and the Structure of Industri-
alism: the Novel as Factory." Studies in the Novel, Summer
Kearns, Katherine. "A Tropology of Realism in Hard Times." ELH 59 (1992): 857-881.
Leavis, F. R. "The Novel as Dramatic Poem (1): Hard Times."
Scrutiny 14 (1947): 185-203. Rpt. as chapter 5, "Hard Times:
An Analytic Note." In The Great Tradition. London: Chatto &
Windus, 1948; rpt. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1962.
Leavis, F. R. and Q. D. Leavis. "Hard Times: The World of
Bentham." Dickens the Novelist. London: Chatto & Windus;
New York: Pantheon, 1970. 187-212.
Lodge, David. "The Rhetoric of Hard Times." The Language of
Fiction. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966. 145-63. Rpt.
1979. Rpt in Dickens: Hard Times, Great Expectations, and
Our Mutual Friend: A Casebook. Ed. Norman Page. London:
Malone, Cynthia Northcutt. "The Fixed Eye and the Rolling Eye:
Surveillance and Discipline in Hard Times." Studies in the
Novel, Spring, 1989: 14-26.
Manning, Sylvia Bank. Hard Times: an Annotated Bibliography.
New York: Garland, 1984.
Marcus, Steven. Engels, Manchester, and the Working Class. New
York: Random House, 1974.
Poovey, Mary. "Figures of Arithmetic, Figures of Speech: The
Discourse of Statistics in the 1830s." Critical Inquiry 19
(Winter 1993): 256-76.
Sadock, Geoffrey Johnson. "Dickens and Dr. Leavis: A Critical
Commentary on Hard Times." Dickens Studies Annual (1972):
Sedgely, Anne. "Hard Times: Facts or Fantasy?" Critical Review
6 (1973): 116-32.
Shaw, George Bernard. "Introduction." Waverley edition, 1912
(36), v-xvi. Rpt. Bernard Shaw's Nondramatic Literary
Criticism. Ed. Stanley Weintraub. Lincoln Neb.: U of
Nebraska P, 1972; also in The Dickens Critics. Ed. George H.
Ford and Lauriat Lane, Jr. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1961; West-
port, Conn.: Greenwood, 1972; also in Dickens: Hard Times,
Great Expectations, and Our Mutual Friend: A Casebook. Ed.
Norman Page. London: Macmillan, 1979.
Slater, Michael. Dickens and Women. Stanford: Stanford UP,
Sonstroem, David. "Fettered Fancy in Hard Times." PMLA 84
Spector, Steven. "Monsters of Metonymy: Hard Times and Knowing
the Working Class." ELH: 1984: 365-84.
Sussman, Herbert L. "The Industrial Novel and the Machine:
Charles Dickens." Victorians and the Machine: The Literary
Response to Technology. Cambridge Mass.: Harvard UP, 1968.
41-75 and passim.
Webb, Igor. From Custom to Capital: The English Novel and the
Industrial Revolution. Ithaca and London: Cornell UP, 1981.
41-75 and passim.
Williams, Raymond. "Dickens and Social Ideas." Dickens 1970. Ed. Michael Slater. London: Chapman and Hall; New York:
Stein and Day 1970. 77-97. Rpt. in Sociology of Literature
and Drama: Selected Readings. Ed. Elizabeth and Tom Burns.
Harmondsworth and Baltimore: Penguin, 1973.
[This list compiled by John Jordan and Hilary Schor with some
modifications and additions by Patrick McCarthy]